Specialized AEM Formats & Sources

AEM refers to print educational materials that have been transformed into the specialized formats of braille, large print, audio, and digital text.

Braille is a tactile system of reading and writing made up of raised dot patterns for letters, numbers, and punctuation marks. Braille may be either embossed on specialized braille paper or electronically generated and accessed via a braille display device. Note: Oklahoma schools began the transition from English Braille American Edition (EBAE) to Unified English Braille (UEB) in 2016.

Large print is generally defined as print that is larger than that commonly used by the general population, typically, 18 point or larger. A document rendered in large print format usually has more white space but contains the same information. Large print books are often much larger than standard textbooks.

Audio refers to sound files, which include navigation and other accessibility features. Audio format may consist of recorded human voice or synthesized speech.

Digital is an electronic format that is read on a computer or other device. Digital text can be easily transformed in many different ways depending upon student needs and the technology being used to display the content. To accommodate the needs and preferences of a user, various features can be manipulated such as size, fonts, colors, contrast, highlighting, and text-to-speech. The digital text format may contain both audio and visual output depending upon the way the content is developed and the technology that is being used.


Large Print and Braille

Audio or Digital

Can't find the book you need?

The Louis Database is a resource of The American Printing House for the Blind (APH). APH maintains and promotes the Louis Database of Accessible Materials, named in honor of Louis Braille

The Louis Database contains information on accessible print materials produced by about 160 organizations throughout the United States. These materials include books in braille, large print, audio, and electronic file format.

What if the student doesn't have a print disability?

The AEM sources listed above are available only for individuals certified by a professional as having a “Print Disability” meaning they are unable to read or use standard print materials because of:

  • Blindness or Visual impairment
  • Physical limitations or
  • Learning disabilities, such as dyslexia

Sometimes, students who do not meet the strict definition of Print Disability may still need AEM. For these students, it is necessary to request accessible materials from the publisher, or explore alternative sources such as commercial vendors, open educational resources (OER) or teacher-created materials. 

The sources below are available to individuals regardless of ability.